Efforts in establishment of technoparks in Turkey dates back to 1980s. As a result, in 1990s, within the collaboration framework of KOSGEB and the universities, TEKMERs (Technology Centers) were founded. The legal framework regarding the technoparks was done in 2001 with the enactment of Technology Development Zones Law No. 4691. This law refers to the concept of technoparks as the technology development zones. As of end of November 2019, 85 technology development zones were declared with the Council of Ministers Decision. Of these 85 technoparks, 66 are active and the rest is under development.
The number of companies doing R&D in the active technoparks has reached 5.472. Of these companies, 45% are involved in software development and ICT and 7% in engineering areas. Besides, many companies involved in medical, energy, chemistry, food, defence, automotive and agriculture sectors are actively doing R&D in these zones. In these companies located within technology development zones, a total of 55.599 people, 46.045 of which are R&D personnel, are presently employed. As of November 2019, the total number of R&D projects (completed and ongoing) in technology development zones are 43.498. The export volume of technological products of these companies reach to 4,4 billion USD, and the major export markets are Japan, Israel, the UK, Germany and the US taking the lead. When considered in terms of foreign capital, the number of enterprises foreign or with foreign shareholders, located in the technology development zones are 308. The number of patents received (national/international) by the companies located in the zones, is accounted as 1.117.
According to Law No.4691, the companies located in technoparks can benefit from miscellaneous tax incentives. The companies are officially exempt from corporate tax and their R&D personnel is exempt from income tax. Apart from these, software products are exempt from VAT. Finally, R&D companies can benefit from 50% social security premium exemption for their personnel for a period of 5 years.